Wednesday, March 30, 2016

Borrelia miyamotoi infection



Background: The first recognized cases of Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) in North America were reported in the northeastern United States in 2013.

Objective: To further describe the clinical spectrum and laboratory findings for BMD.

Design: Case series.

Setting: Patients presenting to primary care offices, emergency departments, or urgent care clinics in 2013 and 2014.

Participants: Acutely febrile patients from the northeastern United States in whom the treating health care providers suspected and ordered testing for tick-transmitted infections.

Measurements: Whole-blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was performed for the presence of specific DNA sequences of common tickborne infections (including BMD). Serologic testing for B. miyamotoi was performed using a recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (rGlpQ) protein. Clinical records were analyzed to identify the major features of acute disease.

Results: Among 11 515 patients tested, 97 BMD cases were identified by PCR. Most of the 51 case patients on whom clinical histories were reviewed presented with high fever, chills, marked headache, and myalgia or arthralgia. Twenty-four percent were hospitalized. Elevated liver enzyme levels, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were common. At presentation, 16% of patients with BMD were seropositive for IgG and/or IgM antibody to B. miyamotoi rGlpQ. Most (78%) had seropositive convalescent specimens. Symptoms resolved after treatment with doxycycline, and no chronic sequelae or symptoms were observed…

Conclusion: Patients with BMD presented with nonspecific symptoms, including fever, headache, chills, myalgia, and arthralgia. Laboratory confirmation of BMD was possible by PCR on blood from acutely symptomatic patients who were seronegative at presentation. Borrelia miyamotoi disease may be an emerging tickborne infection in the northeastern United States.







Appendicitis: antibiotics or surgery?


Antibiotics will get you by but are probably not as effective as surgery. From a recent study:

Design, Setting, and Participants The Appendicitis Acuta (APPAC) multicenter, open-label, noninferiority randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 2009 until June 2012 in Finland. The trial enrolled 530 patients aged 18 to 60 years with uncomplicated acute appendicitis confirmed by a CT scan. Patients were randomly assigned to early appendectomy or antibiotic treatment with a 1-year follow-up period.

Interventions Patients randomized to antibiotic therapy received intravenous ertapenem (1 g/d) for 3 days followed by 7 days of oral levofloxacin (500 mg once daily) and metronidazole (500 mg 3 times per day). Patients randomized to the surgical treatment group were assigned to undergo standard open appendectomy.

Main Outcomes and Measures The primary end point for the surgical intervention was the successful completion of an appendectomy. The primary end point for antibiotic-treated patients was discharge from the hospital without the need for surgery and no recurrent appendicitis during a 1-year follow-up period.

Results There were 273 patients in the surgical group and 257 in the antibiotic group. Of 273 patients in the surgical group, all but 1 underwent successful appendectomy, resulting in a success rate of 99.6% (95% CI, 98.0% to 100.0%). In the antibiotic group, 70 patients (27.3%; 95% CI, 22.0% to 33.2%) underwent appendectomy within 1 year of initial presentation for appendicitis. Of the 256 patients available for follow-up in the antibiotic group, 186 (72.7%; 95% CI, 66.8% to 78.0%) did not require surgery. The intention-to-treat analysis yielded a difference in treatment efficacy between groups of −27.0% (95% CI, −31.6% to ∞) (P = .89). Given the prespecified noninferiority margin of 24%, we were unable to demonstrate noninferiority of antibiotic treatment relative to surgery. Of the 70 patients randomized to antibiotic treatment who subsequently underwent appendectomy, 58 (82.9%; 95% CI, 72.0% to 90.8%) had uncomplicated appendicitis, 7 (10.0%; 95% CI, 4.1% to 19.5%) had complicated acute appendicitis, and 5 (7.1%; 95% CI, 2.4% to 15.9%) did not have appendicitis but received appendectomy for suspected recurrence. There were no intra-abdominal abscesses or other major complications associated with delayed appendectomy in patients randomized to antibiotic treatment.

Conclusions and Relevance Among patients with CT-proven, uncomplicated appendicitis, antibiotic treatment did not meet the prespecified criterion for noninferiority compared with appendectomy. Most patients randomized to antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis did not require appendectomy during the 1-year follow-up period, and those who required appendectomy did not experience significant complications.


Saturday, March 19, 2016

Pneumococcal vaccine and coronary events



Animal models and clinical studies suggest a mechanistic link between the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and a cardiovascular protective effect. However, conflicting results exist from several large observational studies in humans. We set out to systematically review current literature and conduct meta-analyses of studies on PPV and cardiovascular outcomes. Medline, Embase and CENTRAL were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies in adults, using PPV as the intervention, up to 30 April 2014. Studies that compared PPV with a control (another vaccine, no vaccine or placebo) and recorded ischaemic events were included in this review. Two investigators extracted data independently on study design, baseline characteristics and summary outcomes. Study quality was examined using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Pooled estimates using random effects models and their 95% CIs were calculated separately for the outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events and stroke. No RCT data were available. A total of 230 426 patients were included in eight observational studies and recorded as ACS events. PPV was associated with significantly lower odds of ACS events in patients 65 years and older (pooled OR=0.83 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.97), I2=77.0%). However, there was no significant difference in ACS events when younger people were included (pooled OR=0.86 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.01), I2=81.4%). Pooling of four studies, covering a total of 192 210 patients, did not find a significantly reduced risk of stroke in all patients (pooled OR=1.00 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.12), I2=55.3%), or when restricted to those 65 years and older (pooled OR=0.96 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.05), I2=22.5%). In this meta-analysis of observational studies, the use of PPV was associated with a significantly lower risk of ACS events in the older population, but not stroke. An adequately powered and blinded RCT to confirm these findings is warranted.

The PPV, a weak vaccine, has had little impact on pneumococcal disease but it did impact the relative risk of coronary events in this study. I have cited prior research showing pneumonia to be a short term risk factor for coronary events. Whether this risk is unique to pneumococcal disease or related to pneumonia in general needs to be elucidated.

Friday, March 18, 2016

Pelvic osteomyelitis developing from pressure ulcers


The conclusion from a recent review:

This is one of the largest cohort studies of pressure ulcer-related pelvic osteomyelitis to date, and it reveals many gaps in our understanding of this neglected disease and its management. Concurrent UTI was common, making it difficult to determine the cause for a patient's deterioration and, ultimately, hospitalization, in many cases. Half of all pressure sores were inadequately documented, and significant variation existed in the diagnostic approach to suspected osteomyelitis. Most patients received antibiotic therapy; however, those treated with a combined medical-surgical approach fared better in that they had fewer hospital readmissions over the following year. Future studies should determine the financial and societal impact of pelvic osteomyelitis, develop novel wound documentation tools (eg, colorimetric assays), define reliable and readily measurable outcome parameters, and test multidisciplinary treatment strategies to improve long-term morbidity and prognosis associated with this potentially devastating infection.


Thursday, March 17, 2016

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria as a cause of bioprosthetic valve endocarditis


From a recent paper:

Methods. From January 2010 to December 2013, cardiac valve samples sent to our laboratory as cases of blood culture-negative suspected IE were analyzed by 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). When positive for NTM, hsp PCR allowed species identification. Demographic, clinical, echocardiographic, histopathological, and Ziehl-Neelsen staining data were then collected.

Results. Over the study period, 6 of 370 cardiac valves (belonging to 5 patients in 3 hospitals) were positive for Mycobacterium chelonae (n = 5) and Mycobacterium lentiflavum (n = 1) exclusively on bioprosthetic material. The 5 patients presented to the hospital for heart failure without fever 7.1–18.9 months (median 13.1 months) after biological prosthetic valve implantation. Echocardiography revealed paravalvular regurgitation due to prosthesis dehiscence in all patients. Histopathological examination of the explanted material revealed inflammatory infiltrates in all specimens, 3 of which were associated with giant cells. Gram staining and conventional cultures remained negative, whereas Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed acid-fast bacilli in all patients. Allergic etiology was ruled out by antiporcine immunoglobulin E dosages. These 5 cases occurred exclusively on porcine bioprosthetic material, revealing a statistically significant association between bioprosthetic valves and NTM IE (P less than .001).

Conclusions. The body of evidence confirmed the diagnosis of prosthetic IE. The statistically significant association between bioprosthetic valves and NTM IE encourages systematic Ziehl-Neelsen staining of explanted bioprosthetic valves in case of early bioprosthesis dysfunction, even without an obvious sign of IE. In addition, we strongly question the cardiac bioprosthesis conditioning process after animal sacrifice.

Tuesday, March 15, 2016

Internet physician rating sites


They've been around for years now but the impact is still minimal.

In my observation over the years their value has been primarily entertainment.

Monday, March 14, 2016

Lessons for a rewarding career in medicine


This free full text article is an inspiring read. Here is the first among several tips from the article:

The first rule is “Attitude is everything.” Without a positive attitude, you might as well stay home.

That little rule, unfortunately, is increasingly hard to follow given the external baggage doctors must carry these days.

Friday, March 11, 2016

Long-acting inhaled muscarinic antagonist therapy as an adjunct in asthma treatment


In a recent systematic review it was found to have some benefit as an add on to standard treatment with no safety concerns identified.

Thursday, March 10, 2016

Sunday, March 06, 2016

Saturday, March 05, 2016

High-flow nasal cannula oxygen delivery


This relatively new modality is rapidly gaining popularity in the care of patients with respiratory failure. It not only reliably delivers very high fractions of inspired oxygen but also improves lung mechanics via a PEEP effect and can lower CO2 by washing out the anatomic dead space. Here is a free full text review. This site from a manufacturer, though commercially biased, does a good job of explaining the modality and current indications for its use.

Wednesday, March 02, 2016

Liability related to point of care emergency ultrasound


From a recent study:

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of all United States reported state and federal cases in the Westlaw database. We assessed the full text of reported cases between January 2008 and December 2012. EPs with emergency ultrasound fellowship training reviewed the full text of each case. Cases were included if an EP was named, the patient encounter was in the emergency department, the interpretation or failure to perform an ultrasound was a central issue and the application was within the American College of Emergency Physician (ACEP) ultrasound core applications. In order to assess deferred risk, cases that involved ultrasound examinations that could have been performed by an EP but were deferred to radiology were included.

Results

We identified five cases. All reported decisions alleged a failure to perform an ultrasound study or a failure to perform it in a timely manner. All studies were within the scope of emergency medicine and were ACEP emergency ultrasound core applications. A majority of cases (n=4) resulted in a patient death. There were no reported cases of failure to interpret or misdiagnoses.

Tuesday, March 01, 2016

Pioglitazone and cancer: the association remains unclear


There has been a signal for a link between pioglitazone use and bladder cancer. But now, from a recent report in JAMA, an association with prostate and pancreatic cancer is suggested:

Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort and nested case-control analyses among persons with diabetes. A bladder cancer cohort followed 193 099 persons aged 40 years or older in 1997-2002 until December 2012; 464 case patients and 464 matched controls were surveyed about additional confounders. A cohort analysis of 10 additional cancers included 236 507 persons aged 40 years or older in 1997-2005 and followed until June 2012. Cohorts were from Kaiser Permanente Northern California.

Exposures Ever use, duration, cumulative dose, and time since initiation of pioglitazone as time dependent.

Main Outcomes and Measures Incident cancer, including bladder, prostate, female breast, lung/bronchus, endometrial, colon, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, kidney/renal pelvis, rectum, and melanoma.

Results Among 193 099 persons in the bladder cancer cohort, 34 181 (18%) received pioglitazone (median duration, 2.8 years; range, 0.2-13.2 years) and 1261 had incident bladder cancer. Crude incidences of bladder cancer in pioglitazone users and nonusers were 89.8 and 75.9 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. Ever use of pioglitazone was not associated with bladder cancer risk (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.06; 95% CI, 0.89-1.26). Results were similar in case-control analyses (pioglitazone use: 19.6% among case patients and 17.5% among controls; adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.78-1.80). In adjusted analyses, there was no association with 8 of the 10 additional cancers; ever use of pioglitazone was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26) and pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.16-1.71). Crude incidences of prostate and pancreatic cancer in pioglitazone users vs nonusers were 453.3 vs 449.3 and 81.1 vs 48.4 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. No clear patterns of risk for any cancer were observed for time since initiation, duration, or dose.

Conclusions and Relevance Pioglitazone use was not associated with a statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer, although an increased risk, as previously observed, could not be excluded. The increased prostate and pancreatic cancer risks associated with ever use of pioglitazone merit further investigation to assess whether they are causal or are due to chance, residual confounding, or reverse causality.