Monday, August 14, 2017

When can one discontinue non invasive positive pressure ventilation in severe COPE exacerbation?


We assessed whether prolongation of nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) after recovery from acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with NIV could prevent subsequent relapse of AHRF.

A randomised controlled trial was performed in 120 COPD patients without previous domiciliary ventilation, admitted for AHRF and treated with NIV. When the episode was resolved and patients tolerated unassisted breathing for 4 h, they were randomly allocated to receive three additional nights of NIV (n=61) or direct NIV discontinuation (n=59). The primary outcome was relapse of AHRF within 8 days after NIV discontinuation.

Except for a shorter median (interquartile range) intermediate respiratory care unit (IRCU) stay in the direct discontinuation group (4 (2–6) versus 5 (4–7) days, p=0.036), no differences were observed in relapse of AHRF after NIV discontinuation (10 (17%) versus 8 (13%) for the direct discontinuation and nocturnal NIV groups, respectively, p=0.56), long-term ventilator dependence, hospital stay, and 6-month hospital readmission or survival.

Prolongation of nocturnal NIV after recovery from an AHRF episode does not prevent subsequent relapse of AHRF in COPD patients without previous domiciliary ventilation, and results in longer IRCU stay. Consequently, NIV can be directly discontinued when the episode is resolved and patients tolerate unassisted breathing.

NIV can be directly discontinued when a COPD exacerbation is resolved and patients tolerate unassisted breathing

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Atrial fibrillation onset in ICU patients

Objective: To determine the association of new-onset atrial fibrillation with outcomes, including ICU length of stay and survival.

Design: Retrospective cohort of ICU admissions. We found atrial fibrillation using automated detection (greater than or equal to 90 s in 30 min) and classed as new-onset if there was no prior diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. We identified determinants of new-onset atrial fibrillation and, using propensity matching, characterized its impact on outcomes.

Setting: Tertiary care academic center.

Patients: A total of 8,356 consecutive adult admissions to either the medical or surgical/trauma/burn ICU with available continuous electrocardiogram data.

Interventions: None.

Measurements and Main Results: From 74 patient-years of every 15-minute observations, we detected atrial fibrillation in 1,610 admissions (19%), with median burden less than 2%. Most atrial fibrillation was paroxysmal; less than 2% of admissions were always in atrial fibrillation. New-onset atrial fibrillation was subclinical or went undocumented in 626, or 8% of all ICU admissions. Advanced age, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis were the strongest predictors of new-onset atrial fibrillation. In propensity-adjusted regression analyses, clinical new-onset atrial fibrillation was associated with increased hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.01–2.63) and longer length of stay (2.25 d; CI, 0.58–3.92). New-onset atrial fibrillation was not associated with survival after hospital discharge (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.76–1.28 and hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.67–1.83, respectively, for subclinical and clinical new-onset atrial fibrillation).

Conclusions: Automated analysis of continuous electrocardiogram heart rate dynamics detects new-onset atrial fibrillation in many ICU patients. Though often transient and frequently unrecognized, new-onset atrial fibrillation is associated with poor hospital outcomes.

Tuesday, August 01, 2017

Antibiotic associated adverse events in hospitalized patients

Importance Estimates of the incidence of overall antibiotic-associated adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized patients are generally unavailable.

Objective To describe the incidence of antibiotic-associated ADEs for adult inpatients receiving systemic antibiotic therapy.

Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort of adult inpatients admitted to general medicine wards at an academic medical center.

Exposures At least 24 hours of any parenteral or oral antibiotic therapy.

Main Outcomes and Measures Medical records of 1488 patients were examined for 30 days after antibiotic initiation for the development of the following antibiotic-associated ADEs: gastrointestinal, dermatologic, musculoskeletal, hematologic, hepatobiliary, renal, cardiac, and neurologic; and 90 days for the development of Clostridium difficile infection or incident multidrug-resistant organism infection, based on adjudication by 2 infectious diseases trained clinicians.

Results In 1488 patients, the median age was 59 years (interquartile range, 49-69 years), and 758 (51%) participants were female. A total of 298 (20%) patients experienced at least 1 antibiotic-associated ADE. Furthermore, 56 (20%) non–clinically indicated antibiotic regimens were associated with an ADE, including 7 cases of C difficile infection. Every additional 10 days of antibiotic therapy conferred a 3% increased risk of an ADE. The most common ADEs were gastrointestinal, renal, and hematologic abnormalities, accounting for 78 (42%), 45 (24%), and 28 (15%) 30-day ADEs, respectively. Notable differences were identified between the incidence of ADEs associated with specific antibiotics.

Conclusions and Relevance Although antibiotics may play a critical role when used appropriately, our findings underscore the importance of judicious antibiotic prescribing to reduce the harm that can result from antibiotic-associated ADEs.