Our study analyzed 3584 patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from 1996 to 2012. We divided the population on the basis of documented cocaine use (C+) versus noncocaine use (C-) and further stratified the cohorts into type A (33 C+/2332, 1.4%) and type B (30 C+/1252, 2.4%) dissection.
C+ patients presented at a younger age and were more likely to be male and black. Type B dissections were more common among C+ patients than in C- patients. Cocaine-related acute aortic dissection was reported more often at US sites than at European sites (86.4%, 51/63 vs 13.6%, 8/63; P less than .001). Tobacco use was more prevalent in the C+ cohort. No differences were seen in history of hypertension, known atherosclerosis, or time from symptom onset to presentation. Type B C+ patients were more likely to be hypertensive at presentation. C+ patients had significantly smaller ascending aortic diameters at presentation. Acute renal failure was more common in type A C+ patients; however, mortality was significantly lower in type A C+ patients.
Cocaine use is implicated in 1.8% of patients with acute aortic dissection. The typical patient is relatively young and has the additional risk factors of hypertension and tobacco use. In-hospital mortality for those with cocaine-related type A dissection is lower than for those with noncocaine-related dissection, likely due to the younger age at presentation.