Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases.
Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested.