From a systematic review:
Data Synthesis: Of 1156 studies, 20 were included after assessment. There was wide methodological heterogeneity and moderately high risk of bias among studies. Level I evidence suggests that PPIs reduce esophageal ulcer size post–elective esophageal ligation; the clinical importance of such findings is not known given the self-limiting nature of esophageal ulcer. Available evidence does not support a role of PPIs for long-term prophylaxis of portal hypertension–related bleeding and high-dose infusion for acute management of GEV hemorrhage. Retrospective data demonstrate a potential increase in the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis receiving PPIs. Conclusions: The best available evidence supports the use of short-course (10 days) PPI post–endoscopic variceal ligation to reduce ulcer size if ulcer healing is a concern. Practices such as high-dose infusion and prolonged use should be discouraged until evidence of benefit becomes available.