Thursday, May 25, 2017

Dabigatran versus warfarin and the risk of AKI

Background Whether dabigatran is associated with a lower risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) remains unknown.

Objectives The authors compared the risk of AKI in Asians with NVAF who were prescribed dabigatran versus warfarin.

Methods The authors analyzed patients enrolled in the Taiwan nationwide retrospective cohort study from June 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. Dabigatran and warfarin were taken by 7,702 and 7,885 NVAF patients without a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 2,256 and 2,089 NVAF patients with a history of CKD, respectively. A propensity-score weighted method was used to balance covariates across study groups.

Results A total of 6,762 (88%) and 940 (12%) CKD-free patients and 2,025 (90%) and 231 (10%) CKD patients took dabigatran 110 mg and 150 mg twice daily, respectively. Dabigatran was associated with a lower risk of AKI than warfarin for either the CKD-free (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49 to 0.77; p less than 0.001) or CKD (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.69; p less than 0.001) cohort. As the increment in CHA2DS2-VASc score (a risk score based on congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years or older, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, aged 65 to 74 years, and female sex) increased from 0/1 to 6+ points, the incidence of AKI for the dabigatran group was relatively stable (1.87% to 2.91% per year for the CKD-free cohort; 7.31% to 13.15% per year for the CKD cohort) but increased obviously for patients taking warfarin for either CKD-free (2.00% to 6.16% per year) or CKD cohorts (6.82 to 26.03% per year). The warfarin group had a significantly higher annual risk of AKI than the dabigatran group for those with a high CHA2DS2-VASc score (greater than or equal to 4 for the CKD-free cohort and greater than or equal to 3 for the CKD cohort). Subgroup analysis revealed that among dabigatran users, those taking either low-dose or standard-dose dabigatran, those with a warfarin-naïve or warfarin-experienced history, those with or without diabetes, and those with CHA2DS2-VASc greater than or equal to 4 or HAS-BLED greater than or equal to 3 (risk score based on hypertension, abnormal renal and liver function, stroke, prior major bleeding, labile international normalized ratios, age 65 years or older, drugs or alcohol usage history) all had a lower risk of AKI than those taking warfarin.

Conclusions Among Asians with NVAF, dabigatran is associated with a lower risk of AKI than warfarin.

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