•Many patients undergoing TAVI exhibit, subclinical von VWF abnormalities•TAVI leads to a restoration of a loss of HMW VWF multimers•Reduced markers of VWF function may aid to identify patients at increased risk for periprocedural bleeding
In this study, we sought to analyze the incidence and relevance of von Willebrand factor (VWF) abnormalities in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), especially on perioperative bleeding. Furthermore, we hypothesized that, similar to aortic valve surgery, TAVI results in a restoration of VWF abnormalities.
Methods and results
We performed a prospective analysis of periinterventional VWF parameters in 74 patients (80 ± 7 years, female in 37.5%) undergoing transfemoral TAVI for severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. At baseline, VWF:Ag was 210 ± 90 IU/dl with a mean VWF activity of 166 ± 106 IU/dl; activity-to-antigen ratio was 0.85 ± 0.45. Heyde's syndrome (severe aortic stenosis plus GI bleeding from angiodyplasia) was observed in 2/74 (2.7%). Whereas preprocedural loss of high-molecular-weight (HMW) VWF multimers was found in thirty-six patients (48.6%), none of the patients fulfilled criteria for possible acquired VW syndrome. After TAVI, an increase of both VWF:Ag and activity compared to baseline was observed (p less than 0.01). In patients with HMW multimer loss, post-interventional recovery of multimers occurred in all cases. In the two patients with Heyde's syndrome, a trend towards reduced VWF:Ag was seen, with loss of HMW multimers in one patient. Of interest, all patients suffering from periprocedural major bleeding (5/74; 6.8%) exhibited activity-to-antigen ratios less than 0.7, indicating subclinical VWF dysfunction.
Whereas clinically relevant VWF dysfunction is rare, loss of HMW VWF multimers is common in TAVI patients. Similar to surgery, TAVI leads to a restoration of this loss. Furthermore, VWF parameters may be useful parameter to evaluate risk of periprocedural bleeding.