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Obesity is a growing medical and public health problem worldwide. Many digestive diseases are related to obesity. In this article, the current state of our knowledge of obesity-related digestive diseases, their pathogenesis, and the medical and metabolic consequences of weight reduction are discussed. Obesity-related digestive diseases include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal cancer, colon polyp and cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis C-related disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstone, cholangiocarcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. Although obesity-related esophageal diseases are associated with altered mechanical and humoral factors, other obesity-related digestive diseases seem to be associated with obesity-induced altered circulating levels of adipocytokines and insulin resistance. The relationship between functional gastrointestinal disease and obesity has been debated. This review provides a comprehensive evaluation of the obesity-related digestive diseases, including pathophysiology, obesity-related risk, and medical and metabolic effects of weight reduction in obese subjects.