From a recent review:
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterized by the infiltration of IgG4-bearing plasma cells and, more importantly, distinctive histopathological features: storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and mild-to-moderate tissue eosinophilia. The diagnostic approach is complex and relies on the coexistence of various clinical, laboratory, and histopathological findings, none of which is pathognomonic in and of itself. IgG4-related disease should be suspected in patients presenting with unexplained enlargement or swelling of 1 or more organs or tissue organs. Four laboratory abnormalities often provide initial clues to the diagnosis of IgG4-RD: peripheral eosinophilia, hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated serum IgE levels, and hypocomplementemia. Elevated serum IgG4 levels provided critical information in identifying the first cases of IgG4-RD, but recent studies have reported substantial limitations to the measurement of serum IgG4 concentrations, precluding reliance on serum IgG4 concentrations for diagnostic purposes. In contrast, new studies have suggested a promising role of flow cytometry studies in the diagnosis and longitudinal management of IgG4-RD. Demonstration of the classic histopathological features of IgG4-RD remains crucial to diagnosis in most cases, and biopsy proof is preferred strongly by most disease experts before the initiation of treatment. Of note, the multiorgan nature of IgG4-RD was first established in 2003. This review intends to provide most recent knowledge about the clinical, laboratory, radiological, and pathological characteristics of IgG4-RD that may guide the physician to establish an early diagnosis.