Hydralazine, minocycline, propylthiouracil and levamisole-adulterated cocaine use should be closely considered in any patient where ANCA vasculitis is entertained given the wide use of these drugs in the community. Furthermore, medical practitioners should test urine for the presence of cocaine in any patient with presumed ANCA vasculitis, and if positive, then urine should also be tested for levamisole. Clinical features can be severe requiring not only drug cessation and supportive care, but also immunosuppression, plasma exchange in severe cases and dialysis as needed. Clinical trial investigators should strongly consider excluding patients with drug-induced forms of disease and mechanistic inroads are greatly needed in these secondary forms of disease to help elucidate the underlying cause and pathogenesis of ANCA vasculitis.
Monday, January 27, 2014
Drug culprits in ANCA associated vasculitis
It is increasingly appreciated that a positive ANCA and various associated clinical manifestations can be associated with certain drugs. From a recent review: