Like many chronic conditions EO represents an interaction between genetics and environment. From a recent review:
Few studies have been conducted, however a consistent inverse association between EoE and H. pylori has been described. Several studies suggest a weak association between season and EoE diagnosis, but the evidence is inconclusive. EoE has also been associated with early life factors, including Cesarean delivery and antibiotic use. Larger studies are needed to evaluate these associations more thoroughly. Several papers have speculated the potential for anti-secretory agents to contribute to EoE.