A study from 2004 had found that they improved mortality and resource utilization. This newer study did not. Both were before-and-after intervention studies. Given the setting and the conditions of the newer study I have to wonder what the eICU really added, given that most of the study ICUs were “closed” meaning that many patients were cared for by intensivists in the pre-intervention period. Also, utilization of the eICU by individual physicians was limited.
I suspect eICUs are like rapid response teams in that, while it is difficult to prove benefit in the aggregate, individual hospitals may benefit if they utilize them for all they're worth.